Pengertian dan Manajemen Bank Umum di Indonesia

Mengenal Manajemen Bank Umum

Mengenal Manajemen Bank Umum

Mengenal manajemen bank umum dapat dimulai dengan membahas pengertian dari bank umum. Bank Umum adalah bank yang melaksanakan kegiatan usaha secara konvensional dan atau berdasarkan Prinsip Syariah yang dalam kegiatannya memberikan jasa dalam lalu lintas pembayaran.

Salah kegiatan usaha bank adalah menghimpun dana masyarakat. Secara teori, sumber-sumber penghimpunan dana bank meliputi: Giro, Tabungan, Deposito berjangka, Sertifikat deposito, Surat berharga yang diterbitkan, Pinjaman, dan Modal sendiri. Dalam mengembangkan strategi untuk memobilisasi dana, bank perlu menghitung biaya dana bank (cost of fund).

baca juga: Manajemen Kredit Bank Umum

Garis besar penggunaan dana bank meliputi: Cadangan (reserve); Kredit yang disalurkan (loan); dan Investasi (investment). Jika dilihat dari sisi produktivitas aktiva, penggunaan dana bisa dibedakan menjadi aktiva tidak produktif dan aktiva produktif. Aktiva tidak produktif berupa alat liquid (cash asset), berupa kas, giro pada bank sentral, dan giro pada bank lain. Sementara aktiva produktif (earning asset), meliputi kredit, penempatan pada bank lain, surat-surat berharga, dan penyertaan.

Selain menghimpun dan menyalurkan dana, bank juga memberikan jasa yang mempermudah transaksi. Jasa-jasa tersebut meliputi, kliring, inkaso, L/C, bank garansi, dan transfer. Untuk mengoptimalkan pendapatan bank diperlukan manajemen aktiva pasiva atau asset-liability management (ALM) yang merupakan koordinasi hubungan timbal balik yang dilakukan secara terpadu antara kedua sisi neraca bank berdasarkan keputusan dan rencana jangka pendek.

baca juga: 10 Fungsi Manajemen

Salah satu aspek untuk menjaga kepercayaan nasabah deposan adalah tingkat likuiditas bank. Oleh karena itu manajemen likuiditas bank merupakan faktor penting dalam operasional bank. Selain likuiditas kegiatan penting dalam operasonal bank adalah menyalurkan kredit. Beberapa faktor yang menetukan bunga kredit meliputi: Cost of loanable funds, Spread, Biaya overhead, Premi risiko, dan Base lending rate. Selain itu, dalam manajemen kredit terdapat konsep 5C, yaitu character, capacity, capital, collateral, dan condition of economy.

Referensi :

Murti Lestari. 2015. Bank dan Lembaga Keuangan Nonbank. Penerbit Universitas Terbuka: Tanggerang Selatan. Hal 4.14

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