Tokoh Teori Manajemen Ilmiah adalah sebagai

Tokoh Teori Manajemen Ilmiah

Tokoh Teori Manajemen Ilmiah

Tokoh Teori Manajemen Ilmiah adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Frederick W. Taylor (1856 -1915)

Frederick W. Taylor dikenal dengan manajemen ilmiahnya dalam upaya meningkatkan produktivitas. Gerakannya yang terkenal adalah gerakan efisiensi kerja. Taylor membuat prinsip- prinsip yang menjadi intinya manajemen ilmiah yang terkenal dengan rencana pengupahan yang menghasilkan turunnya biaya dan meningkatkan produktivitas, mutu, pendapatan pekerjaan dan semangat kerja karyawan. Adapun filsafat Taylor memiliki 4 prinsip yang ditetapkan yaitu :

  1. Pengembangan manajemen ilmiah secara benar.
  2. Pekerjaan diseleksi secara ilmiah dengan rnenempatkan pekerjaan yang cocok untuk satu pekerjaan.
  3. Adanya pendidikan dan pengambangan ilmiah dari para pekerja.
  4. Kerjasama yang baik antara manajernen dengan pekerja.

Dalam menerapkan ke-empat prinsip ini, beliau menganjurkan perlunya revolusi mental di kalangan manajer dan pekerja. Adapun prinsip- prinsip dasar menurut Taylor mendekati ilmiah adalah:

  1. Adanya ilmu pengetahuan yang menggantikan cara kerja yang asal-asalan.
  2. Adanya hubungan waktu dan gerak kelompok.
  3. Adanya kerja sarna sesama pekerja, dan bukan bekerja secara individual.
  4. Bekerja untuk hasil yang maksimal.
  5. Mengembangkan seluruh karyawan hingga taraf yang setinggi-tingginya, untuk tingkat kesejahteraan maksimum para kaayawan itu sendiri dan perusahaan.

Buku-buku  Taylor  yang  terkenal  adalah  ―Shop  management  (1930)‖,  Principles  Of Scientific Management (1911)‖, dan ―Testimory Before Special House Comittee (1912)‖. Dan pada tahun 1947, ketiga buku tersebut digabungkan dalam 1 (satu) buku dengan judul ―Scientific Management”.

2. Henry L Gant (1861 -1919)

Sumbangan Henay L. Grant yang terkenal adalah sistem bonus harian dan bonus ekstra untuk  para  mandor.  Beliau  juga  memperkenalkan  sistem  ―Charting‖  yang  terkenal dengan  ―Gant  Chart‖.  Ia  menekankan  pentingnya  mengembangkan  minat  hubungan timbal balik antara manajernen dan para karyawan, yaitu kerja sarna yang harmonis. Henry beranggapan bahwa unsur manusia sangat penting sehingga menggaris bawahi pentingnya mengajarkan, mengembangkan pengertian tentang sistem pada pihak karyawan dan manajemen, serta perlunya penghargaan dalam segala masalah manajemen.

baca juga: manajemen ilmiah

Metodenya yang terkenal adalah rnetode grafis dalam menggambarkan rencana-rencana dan memungkinkan adanya pengendalian manajerial yang lebih baik. Dengan rnenekankan pentingnya waktu maupun biaya dalam merencanakan dan rnengendalikan pekerjaan. Hal ini yang menghasilkan terciptanya “Gantt Chart” yang terkenal tersebut

3. Harrington Emerson (1853 – 1931)

Pemborosan dan ketidak-efisienan adalah masalah-masalah yang dilihat emerson sebagai penyakit sistem industry. Oleh sebab itu Emerson mengemukakan 12 prinsip efisien yang sangat terkenal yang sangat ringkas sebagai berikut :

  1. Tujuan-tujuan dirumuskan dengan jelas
  2. Kegiatan yang dilakukan masuk akal
  3. Adanya staf yang cakap
  4. Disiplin
  5. Balas jasa yang adil
  6. Laporan-laporan yang terpercaya, segera, akurat, ajeg, sistem informasi dan akuntansi
  7. Pemberiam perintah – perencanaan dan pengurutan kerja
  8. Adanya standar-standar dan skedul-skedul, metode dan waktu setiap kegiatan.
  9. Kondisi yang distandarisasi
  10. Operasi distandarisasi
  11. Intruksi-intruksi praktis tertulis standar
  12. Balas jasa efisien – rencana insentif


Amirullah. 2015. Pengantar Manajemen. Jakarta : Mitra Wacana Media.

Anton Mulyono Aziz dan Maya Irjayanti, 2014. Manajemen. Bandung: Mardika Group.

Malayu Hasibuan. 2016. Manajemen: Dasar, Penegertian, dan Masalah, Edisi Revisi. Jakarta: PT. Bumi Aksara.

Ramli, Rusli, dkk. 2017. Asas-Asas Manajemen. Tanggerang Selatan: Penerbit Universitas Terbuka

Wibowo, sapurno. 2009. Pengantar Manajemen Bisnis. Politeknik Telkom. Bandung

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